The Significance of Dough Hydration in Neapolitan Pizza

When it comes to crafting the perfect Neapolitan pizza, one essential element cannot be overlooked: the dough hydration. Achieving the ideal hydration level is crucial in creating a pizza with a light, airy crust and a delightful chewy texture. In this blog post, we will delve into the importance of dough hydration. We will explore how it impacts the overall quality of your Neapolitan pizza. 

Understanding Dough Hydration 

Before we dive into the details, let’s define dough hydration. Dough hydration refers to the ratio of water to flour in a pizza dough recipe, expressed as a percentage. It determines the overall moisture content and consistency of the dough. Higher hydration levels result in a more extensible dough. Higher hydration levels also result in a more elastic dough. On the other hand, lower hydration levels yield a denser dough. Lower hydration levels also yield a stiffer dough.

The Role of Dough Hydration in Neapolitan Pizza 

Why is dough hydration so crucial in Neapolitan pizza making? Well, it directly impacts the final crust’s texture, flavor, and overall eating experience. A properly hydrated dough contributes to a light and airy crust. This crust is characterized by distinct air pockets, commonly known as “leopard spots.” Additionally, the right hydration level enhances oven spring. Oven spring refers to the dough’s ability to rise and create a beautifully puffy crust during baking. 

Furthermore, a higher hydration dough retains more moisture. This moisture helps keep the crust’s interior soft and moist. It creates a perfect balance with the crispy exterior. This delicate contrast of textures is a hallmark of authentic Neapolitan pizza.

Calculating Dough Hydration: A Key Formula 

Now, let’s explore how to calculate dough hydration accurately. The formula for dough hydration is relatively straightforward:

Formula: Dough Hydration = (Weight of Water / Weight of Flour) x 100%

By measuring the weight of water and flour used in your recipe, you can easily calculate the hydration percentage. Remember, using weight measurements instead of volume ensures precise and consistent results.

But don’t worry! If math isn’t your strong suit, there are online dough hydration calculators available that can simplify the process for you. These tools allow you to input the weights of water and flour, instantly providing you with the hydration percentage.

Now that we have grasped the basics of dough hydration and its significance in creating the perfect Neapolitan pizza crust, let’s explore how hydration levels interact with baking temperatures to optimize your pizza-making process.

pizza with tomato and cheese on white ceramic plate

Understanding Baker’s Percentages 

When it comes to formulating and adjusting pizza dough recipes, understanding baker’s percentages is essential. This notation system expresses the proportions of ingredients in relation to the weight of flour used. Let’s explore this concept further.

Explanation of Baker’s Percentages 

Baker’s percentages provide a standardized way to communicate and scale ingredient quantities in a recipe. The weight of the flour is set as 100%, and the weights of other ingredients are expressed as a percentage of that weight. This method allows for easy adjustments, whether you’re scaling up or down a recipe.

For example, if a recipe calls for 500 grams of flour and 300 grams of water, the baker’s percentages would be 100% for flour and 60% for water (300 grams ÷ 500 grams x 100%). Other ingredients, such as yeast, salt, or olive oil, would also be expressed as percentages of the flour weight.

Example to Illustrate the Concept 

Let’s consider a hypothetical Neapolitan pizza dough recipe with the following baker’s percentages:

  • Flour: 100%
  • Water: 60%
  • Yeast: 1%
  • Salt: 2%

To calculate the ingredient quantities for a desired dough weight, simply multiply each percentage by the weight of the flour. For instance, if you want to make a 1-kilogram batch of dough:

  • Flour: 1000 grams
  • Water: 600 grams
  • Yeast: 10 grams
  • Salt: 20 grams

This method ensures consistent results and facilitates recipe adjustments based on desired dough quantities.

Now that we have a solid understanding of baker’s percentages and their importance in recipe formulation, let’s move on to calculating dough hydration using these percentages and explore the effects of hydration on the dough and crust of your Neapolitan pizza.

Calculating Pizza Dough Hydration 

Calculating the hydration of your pizza dough accurately is crucial for achieving the desired texture and consistency. In this section, we will explore the formula for calculating dough hydration, introduce a convenient dough hydration calculator, and emphasize the importance of measuring ingredients by weight.

Formula for Calculating Dough Hydration 

The formula for calculating dough hydration is simple yet essential:

Formula: Dough Hydration = (Weight of Water / Weight of Flour) x 100%

By knowing the weights of the water and flour in your recipe, you can determine the hydration percentage. Remember, precise measurements by weight are crucial for consistent results.

Introduction of a Dough Hydration Calculator 

For those who prefer a convenient and time-saving method, dough hydration calculators can be incredibly helpful. These online tools allow you to input the weights of water and flour, instantly providing you with the hydration percentage. They eliminate the need for manual calculations, ensuring accuracy and efficiency in your pizza-making process.

Dough Hydration Calculator – Simplify Your Hydration Calculations

With a dough hydration calculator at your fingertips, you can easily experiment with different hydration levels and fine-tune your recipe to achieve the desired crust texture and consistency.

Emphasis on Measuring Ingredients by Weight 

When it comes to achieving consistent results in your pizza dough, measuring ingredients by weight is paramount. Unlike measuring by volume, which can be imprecise and yield inconsistent results, weighing ingredients ensures accuracy and reproducibility.

Investing in a reliable digital kitchen scale allows you to measure both water and flour precisely, resulting in consistent dough hydration and ultimately, better Neapolitan pizza.

Now that we have covered the calculation of dough hydration and the importance of accurate measurements, let’s delve into the fascinating effects of hydration on the dough and crust of your Neapolitan pizza.

white dough on brown wooden chopping board

Effects of Hydration on Dough and Crust 

Understanding how hydration affects your Neapolitan pizza dough is key to achieving the perfect crust. In this section, we will explore the various effects of hydration on the dough and crust, including softness, stickiness, air bubble formation, oven spring, and moisture content.

Softness and Stickiness of Higher Hydration Dough 

A higher hydration level in your dough results in a softer and stickier texture. The additional water allows the flour to hydrate more fully, creating a dough that is more extensible and easier to work with. However, the increased stickiness can pose a challenge when handling the dough.

When working with higher hydration dough, it is essential to use a dough scraper to handle the sticky dough more easily and prevent it from sticking to your hands or work surface.

Now, let’s move on to the next effect of hydration on your Neapolitan pizza crust.

Formation of Larger Air Bubbles in the Crust 

Higher hydration levels in your dough promote the formation of larger air bubbles in the crust during baking. The increased moisture content and extensibility of the dough allow for more gas retention, resulting in a crust with a beautifully irregular and airy crumb structure.

This characteristic is highly desirable in Neapolitan-style pizza, as it adds lightness and a delightful chew to the crust.

Increased Oven Spring and Crispy Exterior 

Another advantage of higher hydration dough is increased oven spring. Oven spring refers to the rise and puffing up of the crust during baking. The moisture in the dough turns into steam in the hot oven, creating rapid expansion and giving the crust a light and airy texture.

Additionally, the higher moisture content in the dough promotes the development of a crispier exterior during baking. The steam generated from the water in the dough creates a thin, crisp layer on the outside of the crust.

To further enhance the crispiness of the crust, you can utilize the broiler function in your home oven to simulate the intense heat of a traditional wood-fired oven.

Moisture and Softness in the Interior of the Crust 

One of the key benefits of higher hydration dough is that it keeps the interior of the crust moist and soft. The additional moisture in the dough helps retain moisture during the baking process, resulting in a tender and flavorful interior.

This balance between a crisp exterior and a moist interior is a hallmark of a well-made Neapolitan pizza crust.

Now that we have explored the effects of hydration on the dough and crust, let’s move on to the relationship between hydration and baking temperature.

Relationship between Baking Temperature and Hydration 

The relationship between hydration and baking temperature plays a crucial role in achieving the perfect Neapolitan pizza crust. In this section, we will explore the suitability of different hydration levels for wood-fired ovens and home ovens, as well as the optimal hydration percentages for each oven type.

Suitability of Higher Hydration Dough for Wood-Fired Ovens

Higher hydration dough is particularly well-suited for baking in wood-fired ovens. Wood-fired ovens are known for their extremely high temperatures, reaching around 800°F (427°C) or even higher. The intense heat and short baking time in these ovens require a dough with higher hydration to prevent excessive drying and ensure a moist and well-cooked crust.

The recommended hydration percentage for baking Neapolitan pizza in a wood-fired oven is around 60%. This hydration level allows the dough to withstand the intense heat and achieve the desired texture and crust characteristics.

Recommendation for Lower Hydration Dough in Home Ovens 

Home ovens typically have lower maximum temperatures compared to wood-fired ovens. They also have longer baking times. Due to these differences, a lower hydration dough is recommended for baking in home ovens.

Lower hydration dough is easier to handle and shape, making it more manageable in a home kitchen setting. It also helps to maintain the structure and prevent excessive spreading during the longer baking time in a home oven.

For baking Neapolitan-style pizza in a home oven, a hydration range of 65-70% is recommended. This range strikes a balance between achieving a soft and chewy crust and ensuring proper baking in a home oven environment.

Optimal Hydration Percentages for Different Oven Types 

To summarize, the optimal hydration percentages for different oven types are as follows:

• Wood-fired ovens: 60% hydration

• Home ovens: 65-70% hydration

By adjusting the hydration level of your dough according to the type of oven you are using, you can optimize the baking process and achieve excellent results.

Tips for Working with High Hydration Dough 

Working with high hydration dough requires some techniques and tools to ensure successful pizza making. In this section, we will provide you with valuable tips to handle sticky dough and simulate the heat of a wood-fired oven in a home kitchen.

Use of a Dough Scraper for Handling Sticky Dough 

When working with high hydration dough, a dough scraper is an invaluable tool. It helps you handle the sticky dough more easily, preventing it from sticking to your hands or the work surface.



Dipping Hands in Water to Prevent Sticking 

Instead of using flour to prevent the high hydration dough from sticking to your hands, try dipping your hands in water. The moisture on your hands will create a barrier between the dough and your skin, reducing the stickiness and making it easier to work with.

This technique helps maintain the hydration level of the dough and prevents the addition of excess flour, which can alter the texture and consistency of the crust.

Simulating Wood-Fired Oven Heat with Pizza Stone/Steel and Broiler Function 

If you’re baking your Neapolitan pizza in a home oven, you can enhance the results by simulating the intense heat of a wood-fired oven. Two methods to achieve this are by using a pizza stone or steel and utilizing the broiler function of your oven.

A pizza stone or steel helps to absorb and distribute heat evenly, mimicking the effect of a hot stone surface in a wood-fired oven. Preheat the stone or steel in the oven for at least 30 minutes before baking to ensure it reaches the desired temperature.

When it’s time to bake, switch on the broiler function for the final few minutes of baking. This extra burst of heat from the top will help achieve a beautifully browned and blistered crust, resembling the results of a wood-fired oven.

By implementing these tips, you’ll be better equipped to handle high hydration dough and create Neapolitan-style pizza with excellent results in your home kitchen.

Now, let’s explore the importance of using the right type of flour for your Neapolitan pizza dough.

Flour Selection for Neapolitan Pizza Dough 

The choice of flour is a crucial factor in achieving an authentic Neapolitan pizza crust. In this section, we will discuss the importance of water absorption properties in flour and recommend a high-quality flour specifically designed for Neapolitan pizza.

Importance of Water Absorption Properties 

Water absorption is a key characteristic of flour that directly affects the hydration and texture of the dough. Different types of flour have varying water absorption properties, which can significantly impact the final result of your pizza crust.

The ability of flour to absorb water influences the overall hydration level and consistency of the dough. Flour with high water absorption properties requires more water to achieve the desired dough consistency, while flour with lower water absorption requires less water.

Using a flour with the appropriate water absorption properties allows you to achieve the desired hydration level and texture in your Neapolitan pizza dough.

Recommendation for High-Quality Neapolitan Pizza Flour 

When it comes to Neapolitan-style pizza, one highly recommended flour is Antimo Caputo. Antimo Caputo is a renowned brand known for producing high-quality flour specifically crafted for Neapolitan pizza.

Antimo Caputo flour is finely milled, providing excellent water absorption and gluten development. It yields a dough that is easy to work with and produces a crust with the characteristic chewiness and lightness of Neapolitan pizza.

Using high-quality flour, such as Antimo Caputo, ensures consistent and reliable results in your Neapolitan pizza making. It contributes to the authentic taste and texture that Neapolitan pizza enthusiasts love.

With the right flour selection, you are now equipped with the knowledge and tools necessary to create an outstanding Neapolitan pizza crust.

Antimo Caputo Pizzeria Flour Blue


In this comprehensive guide, we have explored the importance of dough hydration in Neapolitan pizza. Provided insights into achieving the perfect crust texture and baking results. Let’s recap the key points discussed throughout this blog post.

Recap of Key Points Discussed

  • Dough hydration refers to the amount of water in the dough relative to the amount of flour and plays a crucial role in the final texture and characteristics of the pizza crust.
  • Baker’s percentages are used to express the proportion of ingredients in relation to the amount of flour, allowing for precise measurement and adjustment of dough hydration.
  • Calculating pizza dough hydration involves using a simple formula and can be further facilitated by utilizing a dough hydration calculator.
  • Accurate measurement of ingredients by weight is essential for consistent and reliable results in pizza making.
  • Higher hydration dough leads to a softer and stickier dough, larger air bubbles in the crust, increased oven spring, and a crispier exterior while maintaining a moist and soft interior.
  • The relationship between baking temperature and hydration is important, with higher hydration dough being suitable for wood-fired ovens and lower hydration dough being recommended for home ovens.
  • Working with high hydration dough requires the use of tools like a dough scraper and the technique of dipping hands in water to prevent sticking.
  • Simulating the heat of a wood-fired oven in a home oven can be achieved by using a pizza stone or steel and utilizing the broiler function.
  • The choice of flour is critical, with high-quality Neapolitan pizza flour like Antimo Caputo being recommended for authentic Neapolitan-style pizza.

Overall Guide to Achieving the Desired Crust Texture and Baking Results in Neapolitan Pizza 

To achieve the desired crust texture and baking results in Neapolitan pizza, follow these key guidelines:

  • Understand and adjust the dough hydration to achieve the desired characteristics.
  • Utilize baker’s percentages and accurate measurements by weight for precise dough hydration calculations.
  • Handle high hydration dough effectively using a dough scraper and the technique of dipping hands in water.
  • Simulate the intense heat of a wood-fired oven in a home oven by using a pizza stone or steel and leveraging the broiler function.
  • Choose high-quality Neapolitan pizza flour, such as Antimo Caputo, to ensure optimal water absorption and gluten development.

By following these guidelines, you will be well on your way to creating Neapolitan-style pizza with a perfectly balanced crust that delights your taste buds.

Now, it’s time to roll up your sleeves, gather your ingredients, and embark on your Neapolitan pizza-making journey. Happy baking!

Leave a Reply